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Just in Time Data

Databases are tricky beasts because their content is both fluid and volatile. There are likely no databases that are 100% comprehensive and 100% accurate at the same time. This problem has only been exacerbated by increasingly ambitious data products that continue to push the envelope in terms of both the breadth and depth of their coverage.

Data publishers have long had to deal with this issue. The most widely adopted approach has been what might be called “data triage.” This is when the publisher quickly updates a data record in response to a subscriber request.

I first encountered this approach with long-time data pioneer D&B. If you requested a background report on a company for which D&B had either a skeleton record or out of date information, D&B adroitly turned this potential problem into a show of commitment to its data quality. The D&B approach was to provide you with whatever stale or skimpy information it had on file in order to provide some data the subscriber might find useful. But D&B would also  indicate in bold type words to the effect of, “this background report contains information that may be outdated. To maintain our data quality standards, a D&B investigator will update this report and an updated report will be sent to you within 48 hours.”

Data triage would begin immediately. D&B would have one of its more experienced researchers call the company and extract as much information as possible. The record was updated, the new information was sent to the subscriber, and anyone else requesting that background report would benefit from the updated information as well.

A variation on this approach is to offer not updates to existing records, but rather to create entirely new records on request. Not in our database? Just let us know, and we’ll do the needed research for you pronto. Boardroom Insiders, a company that sells in-depth profiles of C-suite executives, does this very successfully, as does The Red Flag Group

 The key to succeeding with data triage? First, you have to set yourself up to respond quickly. Your customers will appreciate the custom work you are doing from them, but they still want the information quickly. Secondly, use this technique to supplement your database, not substitute for it. If you are not satisfying most of your subscribers most of the time with the data you have already collected, you’re really not a data publisher, you’re a custom research shop, and that’s a far less attractive business. Finally, learn from these research requests. Why didn’t you already have the company or individual in question in your database? Are the information needs of your subscribers shifting? Are there new segments of the market you need to cover? There’s a lot you can learn from custom requests especially if you can find patterns in these requests. 

Data triage is a smart tactic that many data publishers can use. But always remember, no matter how impressive the service, the subscriber still has to wait for data. Ultimately, this nice courtesy becomes a real inconvenience if the subscriber encounters it too often. What you need to do is both satisfy your customers most of the time, and be there for them when you fall short.

LinkedIn: A D&B For People?

I joined LinkedIn in 2004. I didn’t discover LinkedIn on my own; like many of you, I received an invitation to connect with someone already on LinkedIn, and this required me to create a profile. I did, and became part of what I still believe is one of the most remarkable contributory databases ever created.

Those of you who remember LinkedIn in its early days (it was one of our Models of Excellence in 2004), remember its original premise: making connections – the concept of “six degrees of separation” brought to life. With LinkedIn, you would be able to contact anyone by leveraging “friend of a friend” connections.

It was an original idea, and a nifty piece of programming, but it proved hard to monetize. The key problem is that the people most interested in the idea of contacting someone three hops removed from them were salespeople. People proved remarkably resistant to helping strangers access their friends to make sales pitches. LinkedIn tried all sorts of clever tweaks, but there clearly wasn’t a business opportunity in this approach.

What saved LinkedIn in this early phase was a pivot to selling database access to recruiters. A database this big, deep and current was an obvious winner and it generated significant revenue. But there are ultimately only so many recruiters and large employers to sell to, and that was a problem for LinkedIn, whose ambitions had always been huge.

Where things got off the tracks for LinkedIn was the rise of Facebook, Twitter and the other social networks. Superficially, LinkedIn looked like a B2B social network, and LinkedIn was under tremendous pressure to accept this characterization, because it did wonders for both its profile and its valuation. LinkedIn created a Twitter-like newsfeed (albeit one without character limits), and invested massive resources to promote it. Did it work? My sense is that it didn’t. I never go into LinkedIn with the goal of reading my news feed, and I have the same complaint about it as I have about Twitter: it’s a massive, relentless steam of unorganized content, very little of which is original, and very little of which is useful. 

Today, LinkedIn to me is an endless stream of connection requests from strangers who want to sell me something. LinkedIn today is regular emails reminding me of birthdays of people I barely know because I, like everyone else, have been remarkably undisciplined about accepting new connection requests over the years. LinkedIn is also just one more content dump that I barely glance at, and it’s less and less useful as a database as both its data and search tools are increasingly restricted in order to incent me to become a paid subscriber.

Am I predicting the demise of LinkedIn? Absolutely not! What LinkedIn needs now is another pivot, back to its database roots. It needs to back away from its social media framing, and think of itself more like a Dun & Bradstreet for people. LinkedIn has to use its proven creativity and the resources of its parent to embed itself so deeply into the fabric of business that one’s career is dependent on a current LinkedIn profile. LinkedIn should create tools for HR departments to access and leverage all the structured content in the LinkedIn database so that they will in turn insist on a LinkedIn profile from all candidates and employees. Resurrect the idea of serving as the internal company directory for companies (and deeply integrate it into Microsoft network management tools). Most exciting of all to me is the opportunity to leverage LinkedIn data within Outlook for filtering and prioritizing email – big opportunities that go far beyond the baby steps we’ve seen so far.

I think LinkedIn’s future is bright indeed, but it depends on management focusing on its remarkable data trove, rather than being a Facebook for business. 

Data Flipping

One of the best things above government databases is that even when the government agency makes the database available on its website for free, it isn’t very useful. That’s because government agencies put these databases online for regulatory or compliance reasons.  They’re designed to search for known entities because the expectation is that you are checking the license status of a company, or perhaps its compliance history.

Occasionally, a government agency will get ambitious and permit geographic searches, but in these cases, there are real limitations. That’s because the underlying data were collected for regulatory, not marketing purposes. So, for example, a manufacturer with 30 plants around the country may only appear in one ZIP code because the government agency wants filings only from headquarters locations.

Taking a regulatory database and changing it into, say, a marketing database, is something I call “flipping the file,” because while the underlying data remains the same, the way the database is accessed is different. Sometimes this is as simple as offering more search options; sometimes it involves normalizing or re-structuring the data to make it more useful and accessible. As just one example, a company called Labworks built a product called the RIA Database. It started with an  investment advisor database that the SEC maintains for regulatory purposes, and then flipped the file to make the same database useful to companies that wanted to market toinvestment advisors.  There are hundreds of data publishers doing this in different markets, and as you might expect, it’s a very attractive model since the underlying data can be obtained for free.

In addition to simply flipping a file, you can also enhance a database. The shortcoming of many government databases is that they focus on companies, not people, so while there may be a wealth of information on the company, data buyers typically want to know the names of contacts at those companies. Companies such as D&B and ZoomInfo do a brisk business licensing their contact information to be appended onto government databases of company information.

This is one of the truly magical aspects of the data business. Databases built for one reason can often be re-purposed for an entirely different use. And re-purposing can involve something as little as a new user interface. This magic isn’t limited to government data of course. Another great place to look for flipping opportunities is so-called “data exhaust,” data created in the course of some other activity, and thus not considered valuable by the entity creating it. You can even license data from other data providers and re-purpose it. There are a number of mapping products, for example, that take licensed company data and essentially create a new user interface by displaying data in a map context.

Increasingly, identifying the data need is as important as identifying the data source. With data, it’s all in how you look at it.